Aids the eye in seeing patterns in the presence of overplotting.
geom_smooth()
and stat_smooth()
are effectively aliases: they
both use the same arguments. Use stat_smooth()
if you want to
display the results with a nonstandard geom.
geom_smooth(
mapping = NULL,
data = NULL,
stat = "smooth",
position = "identity",
...,
method = NULL,
formula = NULL,
se = TRUE,
na.rm = FALSE,
orientation = NA,
show.legend = NA,
inherit.aes = TRUE
)
stat_smooth(
mapping = NULL,
data = NULL,
geom = "smooth",
position = "identity",
...,
method = NULL,
formula = NULL,
se = TRUE,
n = 80,
span = 0.75,
fullrange = FALSE,
level = 0.95,
method.args = list(),
na.rm = FALSE,
orientation = NA,
show.legend = NA,
inherit.aes = TRUE
)
mapping  Set of aesthetic mappings created by 

data  The data to be displayed in this layer. There are three options: If A A 
position  Position adjustment, either as a string, or the result of a call to a position adjustment function. 
...  Other arguments passed on to 
method  Smoothing method (function) to use, accepts either
For If you have fewer than 1,000 observations but want to use the same 
formula  Formula to use in smoothing function, eg. 
se  Display confidence interval around smooth? ( 
na.rm  If 
orientation  The orientation of the layer. The default ( 
show.legend  logical. Should this layer be included in the legends?

inherit.aes  If 
geom, stat  Use to override the default connection between

n  Number of points at which to evaluate smoother. 
span  Controls the amount of smoothing for the default loess smoother.
Smaller numbers produce wigglier lines, larger numbers produce smoother
lines. Only used with loess, i.e. when 
fullrange  Should the fit span the full range of the plot, or just the data? 
level  Level of confidence interval to use (0.95 by default). 
method.args  List of additional arguments passed on to the modelling
function defined by 
Calculation is performed by the (currently undocumented)
predictdf()
generic and its methods. For most methods the standard
error bounds are computed using the predict()
method  the
exceptions are loess()
, which uses a tbased approximation, and
glm()
, where the normal confidence interval is constructed on the link
scale and then backtransformed to the response scale.
This geom treats each axis differently and, thus, can thus have two orientations. Often the orientation is easy to deduce from a combination of the given mappings and the types of positional scales in use. Thus, ggplot2 will by default try to guess which orientation the layer should have. Under rare circumstances, the orientation is ambiguous and guessing may fail. In that case the orientation can be specified directly using the orientation
parameter, which can be either "x"
or "y"
. The value gives the axis that the geom should run along, "x"
being the default orientation you would expect for the geom.
geom_smooth()
understands the following aesthetics (required aesthetics are in bold):
x
y
alpha
colour
fill
group
linetype
size
weight
ymax
ymin
Learn more about setting these aesthetics in vignette("ggplot2specs")
.
stat_smooth()
provides the following variables, some of which depend on the orientation:
predicted value
lower pointwise confidence interval around the mean
upper pointwise confidence interval around the mean
standard error
See individual modelling functions for more details:
lm()
for linear smooths,
glm()
for generalised linear smooths, and
loess()
for local smooths.
ggplot(mpg, aes(displ, hwy)) +
geom_point() +
geom_smooth()
#> `geom_smooth()` using method = 'loess' and formula 'y ~ x'
# If you need the fitting to be done along the yaxis set the orientation
ggplot(mpg, aes(displ, hwy)) +
geom_point() +
geom_smooth(orientation = "y")
#> `geom_smooth()` using method = 'loess' and formula 'y ~ x'
# Use span to control the "wiggliness" of the default loess smoother.
# The span is the fraction of points used to fit each local regression:
# small numbers make a wigglier curve, larger numbers make a smoother curve.
ggplot(mpg, aes(displ, hwy)) +
geom_point() +
geom_smooth(span = 0.3)
#> `geom_smooth()` using method = 'loess' and formula 'y ~ x'
# Instead of a loess smooth, you can use any other modelling function:
ggplot(mpg, aes(displ, hwy)) +
geom_point() +
geom_smooth(method = lm, se = FALSE)
#> `geom_smooth()` using formula 'y ~ x'
ggplot(mpg, aes(displ, hwy)) +
geom_point() +
geom_smooth(method = lm, formula = y ~ splines::bs(x, 3), se = FALSE)
# Smooths are automatically fit to each group (defined by categorical
# aesthetics or the group aesthetic) and for each facet.
ggplot(mpg, aes(displ, hwy, colour = class)) +
geom_point() +
geom_smooth(se = FALSE, method = lm)
#> `geom_smooth()` using formula 'y ~ x'
ggplot(mpg, aes(displ, hwy)) +
geom_point() +
geom_smooth(span = 0.8) +
facet_wrap(~drv)
#> `geom_smooth()` using method = 'loess' and formula 'y ~ x'
# \donttest{
binomial_smooth < function(...) {
geom_smooth(method = "glm", method.args = list(family = "binomial"), ...)
}
# To fit a logistic regression, you need to coerce the values to
# a numeric vector lying between 0 and 1.
ggplot(rpart::kyphosis, aes(Age, Kyphosis)) +
geom_jitter(height = 0.05) +
binomial_smooth()
#> `geom_smooth()` using formula 'y ~ x'
#> Warning: Computation failed in `stat_smooth()`:
#> y values must be 0 <= y <= 1
ggplot(rpart::kyphosis, aes(Age, as.numeric(Kyphosis)  1)) +
geom_jitter(height = 0.05) +
binomial_smooth()
#> `geom_smooth()` using formula 'y ~ x'
ggplot(rpart::kyphosis, aes(Age, as.numeric(Kyphosis)  1)) +
geom_jitter(height = 0.05) +
binomial_smooth(formula = y ~ splines::ns(x, 2))
# But in this case, it's probably better to fit the model yourself
# so you can exercise more control and see whether or not it's a good model.
# }