The Cartesian coordinate system is the most familiar, and common, type of coordinate system. Setting limits on the coordinate system will zoom the plot (like you're looking at it with a magnifying glass), and will not change the underlying data like setting limits on a scale will.

## Arguments

- xlim, ylim
Limits for the x and y axes.

- expand
If

`TRUE`

, the default, adds a small expansion factor to the limits to ensure that data and axes don't overlap. If`FALSE`

, limits are taken exactly from the data or`xlim`

/`ylim`

.- default
Is this the default coordinate system? If

`FALSE`

(the default), then replacing this coordinate system with another one creates a message alerting the user that the coordinate system is being replaced. If`TRUE`

, that warning is suppressed.- clip
Should drawing be clipped to the extent of the plot panel? A setting of

`"on"`

(the default) means yes, and a setting of`"off"`

means no. In most cases, the default of`"on"`

should not be changed, as setting`clip = "off"`

can cause unexpected results. It allows drawing of data points anywhere on the plot, including in the plot margins. If limits are set via`xlim`

and`ylim`

and some data points fall outside those limits, then those data points may show up in places such as the axes, the legend, the plot title, or the plot margins.

## Examples

```
# There are two ways of zooming the plot display: with scales or
# with coordinate systems. They work in two rather different ways.
p <- ggplot(mtcars, aes(disp, wt)) +
geom_point() +
geom_smooth()
p
#> `geom_smooth()` using method = 'loess' and formula = 'y ~ x'
# Setting the limits on a scale converts all values outside the range to NA.
p + scale_x_continuous(limits = c(325, 500))
#> `geom_smooth()` using method = 'loess' and formula = 'y ~ x'
#> Warning: Removed 24 rows containing non-finite outside the scale range
#> (`stat_smooth()`).
#> Warning: Removed 24 rows containing missing values or values outside the scale
#> range (`geom_point()`).
# Setting the limits on the coordinate system performs a visual zoom.
# The data is unchanged, and we just view a small portion of the original
# plot. Note how smooth continues past the points visible on this plot.
p + coord_cartesian(xlim = c(325, 500))
#> `geom_smooth()` using method = 'loess' and formula = 'y ~ x'
# By default, the same expansion factor is applied as when setting scale
# limits. You can set the limits precisely by setting expand = FALSE
p + coord_cartesian(xlim = c(325, 500), expand = FALSE)
#> `geom_smooth()` using method = 'loess' and formula = 'y ~ x'
# Similarly, we can use expand = FALSE to turn off expansion with the
# default limits
p + coord_cartesian(expand = FALSE)
#> `geom_smooth()` using method = 'loess' and formula = 'y ~ x'
# You can see the same thing with this 2d histogram
d <- ggplot(diamonds, aes(carat, price)) +
stat_bin_2d(bins = 25, colour = "white")
d
# When zooming the scale, the we get 25 new bins that are the same
# size on the plot, but represent smaller regions of the data space
d + scale_x_continuous(limits = c(0, 1))
#> Warning: Removed 17502 rows containing non-finite outside the scale range
#> (`stat_bin2d()`).
#> Warning: Removed 17 rows containing missing values or values outside the scale
#> range (`geom_tile()`).
# When zooming the coordinate system, we see a subset of original 50 bins,
# displayed bigger
d + coord_cartesian(xlim = c(0, 1))
```